Read e-book online 110 Semiconductor Projects for the Home Constructor PDF

Electric

By R. M. Marston (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0408003227

ISBN-13: 9780408003223

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H e r e , Q l is n o r m a l l y o n a n d Q2 is off; w h e n t h e base o f Q l is briefly s h o r t e d t o g r o u n d , t h e circuit changes s t a t e , b u t after a delay d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e Rs-C t i m e c o n s t a n t r e t u r n s x a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o t h e n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n . 5 sec. T h e circuit can be triggered electronically, if r e q u i r e d , via a negative pulse applied t o Q l base. O u t p u t s c a n be t a k e n from either collector, a n d t h e circuit can be u s e d w i t h a n y s u p p l y in t h e range 2 - 9 V .

N o w , while it is t r u e t h a t distilled w a t e r h a s very g o o d insulating p r o p e r t i e s , it is a fact t h a t t h e i m p u r i t i e s in n o r m a l t a p w a t e r , or even in rain w a t e r in industrial areas, cause these liquids t o have a fairly l o w resistance, s o , in Fig. 23, t h e relay c a n be o p e r a t e d b y placing t h e p r o b e s in n o r m a l w a t e r . T h e circuit h a s a n u m b e r of a p p l i c a t i o n s in t h e h o m e ; it c a n , for e x a m p l e , be u s e d t o s o u n d an alarm w h e n b a t h water reaches a p r e d e t e r m i n e d level, or t o a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i n d in an o u t d o o r washing line w h e n it rains, e t c .

T h i s circuit uses a variety of transistor o p e r a t i n g m o d e s ( c o m m o n source, c o m m o n b a s e , and c o m m o n c o l l e c t o r ) , a n d is t h e r e f o r e k n o w n as a ' c o m p o u n d amplifier'. s gate-to-drain capacitance in p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e voltage gain b e t w e e n gate a n d drain. In Fig. 2 . t. t. is c o n n e c t e d directly t o t h e e m i t t e r of a t h i r d transistor, Q3, w h i c h is wired as a c o m m o n base amplifier. t. is c o n c e r n e d , t h e e m i t t e r of Q3 a p p e a r s as a very low i m p e d a n c e drain load, w h i c h effectively couples t h e drain t o I8V TO 24V +Ve OUT Fig.

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110 Semiconductor Projects for the Home Constructor by R. M. Marston (Auth.)


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