David J. Kalupahana's A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity and PDF
By David J. Kalupahana
The current paintings has, on account that its unique e-book in 1976, provided an unequaled creation to the philosophical ideas and historic improvement of Buddhism. Now, representing the fruits of Dr. Kalupahana's thirty years of scholarly study the mirrored image, 'A heritage of Buddhist Philosophy' builds upon and surpasses that previous paintings, offering a very reconstructed, precise research of either early and later Buddhism.
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Extra resources for A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity and Discontinuity
R e r m c p it ic k „ m a n a ctl<>n > lC is internal to the person, whereas biological determinism is external. Action explains free will, for every action is willed. It is free because it is not part of biological determinism. This is the sense in which M ahavira’s statement that “there are things that are determined and things that are not determined” (niyaydniyayarp sarptarp)18 can be understood. The above explanation of human action and biological determinism may have compelled Mahavlra to adopt a non-absolutistic standpoint regarding ordinary human knowledge and understanding.
This eliminated the last of the hurdles or obstacles, namely, confusion (moha). The elimination of lust, hatred, and confusion (ràgakkhaya, dosakkhaya, and mohakkhaya) constituted his enlightenment and freedom, and this final knowledge and insight is referred to as “knowledge of the waning of influxes” (âsavakkhaya-nàna). It represents a transformation of his whole personality, cognitive, conative, and emotive. With that transformation, Siddhârtha was able to perceive the world paying atten tion to the human predicament and the way out of it, which he summa rized in the four noble truths (ariya-sacca).
Thus we have the famous Jaina theory of “possibilities” (syddvada) as well as of “stand points” (naya). Before Mahavlra, the skeptic Sarijaya had proposed four negative propositions in order to avoid errors in philosophical discourse. These negative propositions were stated in the following form: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ais not B. Ais not M T Ais not (B • ~B). Ais not ~(B • ~B). Mahavlra, a younger contemporary of Sarijaya, found these alternatives too skeptical. His explanation of existence had to accommodate both positive and negative propositions, together with the assumption that both are possibilities (sydd).
A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity and Discontinuity by David J. Kalupahana