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ISBN-10: 0408013281

ISBN-13: 9780408013284

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Energy use will be. Fuel switching is also included in the range of conservation options. Generally the shift is away from fossil fuels, principally oil, used in buildings towards the greater use of SYMBOLS : distributed heat, electricity and solar for heating. District TREND SCONTINUE DCAS E heating, for instance, already widely used in the Soviet Union ENERG YCONSERVATIO NCAS E and Eastern Europe is expanded still further in those countries. By the year 2000 district heat provides 45 per cent of the heat consumed in service sector buildings in the Soviet Union for the Conservation Case, having risen from 36 per cent in 1975.

11. Dwellings are projected to become larger in the Soviet Union, the United States and in Eastern Europe. In Western Europe the trend towards somewhat smaller and more compactly designed dwellings is expected to continue. O n the conservation side, heat losses are reduced in new and old dwellings and in both the Conservation Case and in the Trends Continued Case. Space heating appliances for fossil fuels become moderately more efficient while electric and gas heat pumps are installed. Solar space heating is also intro­ duced in all countries.

35 need for some heating equipment and its initial costs. Coupled with these design considerations are regulations on thermal efficiency. In November 1977 the Regulation on Thermal Insulation came into effect. It applies only to new buildings because its provisions are not economically justified for existing buildings. The building code specifies maximum heat losses in the form of U values based on a building's surface to volume ratio or its type of built form. 8. 80 Other legislation will apply to measuring and monitoring energy consumption, existing buildings and their heating systems and measures of thermal comfort.

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An Efficient Energy Future. Prospects for Europe and North America by Unknown Author Unknown Author

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